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Ghosh

CODE


Collaborative Ownership and the Digital Economy

MIT Press





Open source software is considered by many to be a novelty and the open
source movement a revolution. Yet the collaborative creation of knowledge has gone
on for as long as humans have been able to communicate. CODE looks at the
collaborative model of creativity -- with examples ranging from collective ownership
in indigenous societies to free software, academic science, and the human genome
project -- and finds it an alternative to proprietary frameworks for creativity
based on strong intellectual property rights.Intellectual property rights, argues
Rishab Ghosh in his introduction, were ostensibly developed to increase creativity;
but today, policy decisions that treat knowledge and art as if they were physical
forms of property actually threaten to decrease creativity, limit public access to
creativity, and discourage collaborative creativity. "Newton should have had to pay
a license fee before being allowed even to see how tall the 'shoulders of giants'
were, let alone to stand upon them," he writes.The contributors to CODE, from such
diverse fields as economics, anthropology, law, and software development, examine
collaborative creativity from a variety of perspectives, looking at new and old
forms of creative collaboration and the mechanisms emerging to study them.
Discussing the philosophically resonant issues of ownership, property, and the
commons, they ask if the increasing application of the language of property rights
to knowledge and creativity constitutes a second enclosure movement -- or if the
worldwide acclaim for free software signifies a renaissance of the commons. Two
concluding chapters offer concrete possibilities for both alternatives, with one
proposing the establishment of "positive intellectual rights" to information and
another issuing a warning against the threats to networked knowledge posed by
globalization.
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