Greulich / Jawad Fabrication of Metallic Pressure Vessels



1. Auflage 2022, 336 Seiten, Gebunden, Format (B × H): 124 mm x 191 mm, Gewicht: 249 g Reihe: Wiley-ASME Press Series
ISBN: 978-1-119-67486-3
Verlag: WILEY ASME PR SERIES


Greulich / Jawad Fabrication of Metallic Pressure Vessels

Fabrication of Metallic Pressure Vessels

A comprehensive guide to processes and topics in pressure vessel fabrication

Fabrication of Metallic Pressure Vessels delivers comprehensive coverage of the various processes used in the fabrication of process equipment. The authors, both accomplished engineers, offer readers a broad understanding of the steps and processes required to fabricate pressure vessels, including cutting, forming, welding, machining, and testing, as well as suggestions on controlling costs.

Each chapter provides a complete description of a specific fabrication process and details its characteristics and requirements. Alongside the accessible and practical text, you'll find equations, charts, copious illustrations, and other study aids designed to assist the reader in the real-world implementation of the concepts discussed within the book.

You'll find numerous appendices that include weld symbols, volume and area equations, pipe and tube dimensions, weld deposition rates, lifting shackle data, and more.

In addition to detailed discussions of cutting, machining, welding, and post-weld heat treatments, readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:

* A thorough introduction to construction materials, including both ferrous and nonferrous alloys
* An exploration of layout, including projection and triangulation, material thickness and bending allowance, angles and channels, and marking conventions
* A treatment of material forming, including bending versus three-dimensional forming, plastic theory, forming limits, brake forming, roll forming, and tolerances
* Practical discussions of fabrication, including weld preparation, forming, vessel fit up and assembly, correction of distortion, and transportation of vessels

Perfect for new and established engineers, designers, and procurement personnel working with process equipment or in the fabrication field, Fabrication of Metallic Pressure Vessels will also earn a place in the libraries of students in engineering programs seeking a one-stop resource for the fabrication of pressure vessels.

Weitere Infos & Material


Preface xviiAcknowledgments xix1 Introduction 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Fabrication Sequence 11.3 Cost Considerations 51.3.1 Types of costs 51.3.2 Design choices 61.3.3 Shipping 111.3.4 General approach to cost control 121.4 Fabrication of Nonnuclear Versus Nuclear Pressure Vessels 121.5 Units and Abbreviations 131.6 Summary 142 Materials of Construction 152.1 Introduction 152.2 Ferrous Alloys 162.2.1 Carbon steels (Mild steels) 162.2.2 Low alloy steels (Cr-Mo steels) 182.2.3 High alloy steels (stainless steels) 192.2.4 Cost of ferrous alloys 202.3 Nonferrous Alloys 202.3.1 Aluminum alloys 202.3.2 Copper alloys 222.3.3 Nickel alloys 302.3.4 Titanium alloys 302.3.5 Zirconium alloys 302.3.6 Tantalum alloys 322.3.7 Price of nonferrous alloys 332.4 Density of Some Ferrous and Nonferrous Alloys 342.5 Nonmetallic Vessels 352.6 Forms and Documentation 352.7 Miscellaneous Materials 382.7.1 Cast iron 382.7.2 Gaskets 38References 433 Layout 443.1 Introduction 443.2 Applications 443.3 Tools and Their Use 453.4 Layout Basics 453.4.1 Projection 463.4.2 Triangulation 463.5 Material Thickness and Bending Allowance 493.6 Angles and Channels 503.7 Marking Conventions 523.8 Future of Plate Layout 54Reference 544 Material Forming 554.1 Introduction 554.1.1 Bending versus three-dimensional forming 554.1.2 Other issues 554.1.3 Plastic Theory 564.1.4 Forming limits 624.1.5 Grain direction 644.1.6 Cold versus hot forming 644.1.7 Spring back 644.2 Brake Forming (Angles, Bump-Forming) 654.2.1 Types of dies 674.2.2 Brake work forming limits 684.2.3 Crimping 684.2.4 Bending of pipes and tubes 694.2.5 Brake forming loads 704.3 Roll Forming (Shells, Reinforcing Pads, Pipe/Tube) 704.3.1 Pyramid rolls 704.3.2 Pinch rolls 714.3.3 Two-roll systems 714.3.4 Rolling radius variability compensation 724.3.5 Heads and caps 724.3.6 Hot forming 744.4 Tolerances 744.4.1 Brake forming tolerances 754.4.2 Roll forming tolerances 764.4.3 Press forming tolerances 764.4.4 Flanging tolerances 76Reference 765 Fabrication 775.1 Introduction 775.2 Layout 775.3 Weld Preparation 785.3.1 Hand and automatic grinders 785.3.2 Nibblers 785.3.3 Flame cutting 795.3.4 Boring mills 795.3.5 Lathes 805.3.6 Routers 805.3.7 Other cutter arrangements 825.4 Forming 825.5 Vessel Fit Up and Assembly 835.5.1 The fitter 845.5.2 Fit up tools 845.5.3 Persuasion and other fit up techniques 845.5.4 Fixturing 855.5.5 Welding fit up 865.5.6 Weld shrinkage 885.5.7 Order of assembly 895.6 Welding 905.6.1 Welding position 905.6.2 Welding residual stresses 905.6.3 Welding positioners, turning rolls, column and boom weld manipulators 915.7 Correction of Distortion 945.8 Heat Treatment 945.8.1 Welding preheat 955.8.2 Interpass temperature 955.8.3 Post weld heat treatment 965.9 Post-fabrication Machining 965.10 Field Fabrication - Special Issues 965.10.1 Exposure to the elements 975.10.2 Staging area 975.10.3 Tool and equipment availability 985.10.4 Staffing 985.10.5 Material handling 985.10.6 Energy sources 995.10.7 PWHT 995.10.8 Layout 1005.10.9 Fit up 1005.10.10 Welding 1005.11 Machining 1015.12 Cold Springing 1016 Cutting and Machining 1026.1 Introduction 1026.2 Common Cutting Operations for Pressure Vessels 1026.3 Cutting Processes 1036.3.1 Plate cutting 1036.3.2 Pipe, bar, and structural shape cutting 1086.4 Common Machining Functions and Processes 1106.5 Common Machining Functions for Pressure Vessels 1116.5.1 Weld preparation 1116.5.2 Machining of flanges 1116.5.3 Tubesheets 1126.5.4 Heat exchanger channels 1136.5.5 Heat exchanger baffles 1136.6 Setup Issues 1146.7 Material Removal Rates 1166.7.1 Feed 1166.7.2 Speed 1166.7.3 Depth of cut 1166.8 Milling 1176.9 Turning and Boring 1196.10 Machining Centers 1206.11 Drilling 1206.12 Tapping 1216.13 Water Jet Cutting 1226.14 Laser Machining 1236.15 Reaming 1236.16 Electrical Discharge Machining, Plunge and Wire 1236.17 Electrochemical Machining 1246.18 Electron Beam Machining 1246.19 Photochemical Machining 1246.20 Ultrasonic Machining 1256.21 Planing and Shaping 1256.22 Broaching 1256.23 3D Printing 1256.24 Summary 126Reference 1267 Welding 1277.1 Introduction 1277.2 Weld Details and Symbols 1277.2.1 Single fillet welds 1287.2.2 Double fillet welds 1287.2.3 Intermittent fillet welds 1287.2.4 Single-bevel butt welds 1297.2.5 Double-bevel butt welds 1297.2.6 J-groove or double J-groove welds 1297.2.7 Backing strips 1317.2.8 Consumables 1317.2.9 Tube-to-tubesheet welds 1317.2.10 Weld symbols 1317.3 Weld Processes 1327.3.1 Diffusion welding (DFW) 1357.3.2 Electron beam welding (EBW) 1357.3.3 Electrogas welding (EGW) 1367.3.4 Electroslag welding (ESW) 1367.3.5 Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) 1377.3.6 Flash welding 1377.3.7 Friction stir welding (FSW) 1377.3.8 Gas metal-arc welding (GMAW) 1387.3.9 Gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW) 1387.3.10 Laser beam welding (LBW) 1397.3.11 Orbital welding 1407.3.12 Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW) 1407.3.13 Plasma-arc welding (PAW) 1417.3.14 Resistance spot welding (RSW) 1417.3.15 Resistance seam welding (RSEW) 1427.3.16 Submerged-arc welding (SAW) 1427.3.17 Shielded metal-arc welding (SMAW) 1427.3.18 Stud welding 1437.4 Weld Preheat and Interpass Temperature 1437.5 Post Weld Heat Treating 1437.6 Welding Procedures 1437.7 Control of Residual Stress and Distortion 1447.8 Material Handling to Facilitate Welding 1457.9 Weld Repair 1457.10 Brazing 1457.10.1 Applications 1457.10.2 Filler metal 1457.10.3 Heating 1457.10.4 Flux 1457.10.5 Brazing procedures 146Reference 1468 Welding Procedures and Post Weld Heat Treatment 1478.1 Introduction 1478.2 Welding Procedures 1478.3 Weld Preparation Special Requirements 1538.4 Weld Joint Design and Process to Reduce Stress and Distortion 1568.4.1 Reduced heat input 1568.4.2 Lower temperature differential 1568.4.3 Choice of weld process 1568.4.4 Weld configuration and sequencing 1578.5 Weld Preheat and Interpass Temperature 1578.6 Welder Versus Welding Operator 1588.6.1 Welders 1588.6.2 Welding operators 1588.6.3 Differences in qualifications 1598.7 Weld Repair 1598.7.1 Slag inclusion during welding 1598.7.2 Surface indications after cooling of welds 1598.7.3 Delayed hydrogen cracking after welding 1598.7.4 Cracks occurring subsequent to PWHT 1608.8 Post Weld Heat Treating 1608.8.1 PWHT of carbon steels 1608.8.2 PWHT of low alloy steels 1618.8.3 Some general PWHT requirements for carbon steels and low alloy steels 1618.8.4 PWHT of stainless steel 1628.8.5 PWHT of nonferrous alloys 1628.9 Cladding, Overlay, and Loose Liners 1628.9.1 Cladding 1628.9.2 Weld overlay 1638.9.3 Loose liners 1648.10 Brazing 1648.10.1 Applications 1658.10.2 Filler metal 1658.10.3 Heating 1658.10.4 Flux 1668.10.5 Brazing procedures 166Reference 1669 Fabrication of Pressure Equipment Having Unique Characteristics 1679.1 Introduction 1679.2 Heat Exchangers 1679.2.1 U-tube heat exchangers 1699.2.2 Fixed heat exchangers 1709.2.3 Floating head heat exchangers 1709.2.4 Attachment of tubes-to-tubesheets and tubes-to-headers 1709.2.5 Expansion joints 1769.2.6 Assembly of heat exchangers 1789.3 Dimpled Jackets 1809.4 Layered Vessels 1819.4.1 Introduction 1819.4.2 Fabrication of layered shells 1819.5 Rectangular Vessels 1879.6 Vessels with Refractory and Insulation 1889.7 Vessel Supports 1909.8 Summary 191References 19210 Surface Finishes 19310.1 Introduction 19310.2 Types of Surface Finishes 19310.2.1 Surface characteristics, unfinished 19410.2.2 Passivation 19510.2.3 Applied coatings 196Reference 19911 Handling and Transportation 20011.1 Introduction 20011.2 Handling of Vessels and Vessel Components Within the Fabrication Plant 20011.3 Transportation of Standard Loads 20211.4 Transportation of Heavy Vessels 20411.4.1 Handling heavy vessels using specialty cranes 20411.4.2 Shipping by truck 20411.4.3 Shipping by rail 20811.4.4 Shipping by barge or ship 21211.4.5 Shipping by air 21511.5 Summary 21612 ASME Code Compliance and Quality Control System 21712.1 Need for ASME Code Compliance 21712.2 What the ASME Code Provides 21712.3 Fabrication in Accordance with the ASME Code 21712.4 ASME Code Stamped Vessels 21812.4.1 Design calculations 21812.4.2 Fabrication drawings 21812.4.3 Material mill test reports 21812.4.4 WPS for the vessel welds 21912.4.5 Records of nondestructive (NDE) examination 21912.4.6 Record of PWHT 21912.4.7 Record of hydrotesting 22012.4.8 Manufacturer's Data Report, U-1 Form 22012.4.9 Manufacturer's Partial Data Report, U-2 form 22212.4.10 Name plate 22212.5 Authorized Inspector and Authorized Inspection Agency 22412.6 Quality Control System for Fabrication 22412.6.1 Organizational chart 22512.6.2 Authority and responsibility 22512.6.3 Quality control system 22512.6.4 Design and drawing control 22512.6.5 Material control 22512.6.6 Production control 22512.6.7 Inspection 22512.6.8 Hydrostatic and pneumatic testing 22512.6.9 Code stamping 22612.6.10 Discrepancies and nonconformances 22612.6.11 Welding 22612.6.12 Nondestructive examination 22612.6.13 Heat treatment control 22612.6.14 Calibration of measuring and test equipment 22612.6.15 Records retention 22612.6.16 Handling, storage, and shipping 22612.7 Additional Stamps Required for Pressure Vessels 22612.7.1 National Board stamping, NB 22712.7.2 Jurisdictional stamping 22712.7.3 User stamping 22712.7.4 Canadian Registration Numbers 22712.8 Non-Code Jurisdictions 22712.9 Temporary Shop Locations 228Reference 22913 Repair of Existing Equipment 23013.1 Introduction 23013.2 National Board Inspection Code, NBIC, NB-23 23113.2.1 Repairs 23113.2.2 Alterations 23213.2.3 Reratings 23213.2.4 Post weld heat treating of repaired components 23213.2.5 Hydrostatic or pneumatic testing of repaired vessels 23413.3 ASME Post Construction Code, PCC-2 23613.3.1 External weld buildup to repair internal thinning 23613.3.2 Full encirclement steel reinforcing sleeves for pipes in corroded areas 23713.3.3 Welded hot taps 23813.4 API Pressure Vessel Inspection Code, API-510 24113.5 API 579/ASME FFS-1 Fitness-For-Service Code 24213.6 Miscellaneous Repairs 24213.6.1 Removal of seized nuts 24313.6.2 Structural supports and foundation 243References 244Appendix A Units and Conversion Factors 245Appendix B Welding Symbols 247Appendix C Weld Process Characteristics 251Appendix D Weld Deposition 254Appendix E Shape Properties 257Appendix F Pipe and Tube Dimensions and Weights 263Appendix G Bending and Expanding of Pipes and Tubes 278Appendix H Dimensions of Some Commonly Used Bolts and Their Required Minimum Spacing 286Appendix I Shackles 288Appendix J Shears, Moments, and Deflections of Beams 295Appendix K Commonly Used Terminology 299Index 304


Jawad, Maan H.
Owen R. Greulich is active on the High Pressure Task Group of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Process Piping Code Committee and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Aerospace Pressure Vessel Committee. He previously served as Pressure and Energetic Systems Safety Manager in the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters, responsible for the safety of pressure and vacuum systems.Maan H. Jawad is President of Global Engineering & Technology in the United States. He was previously on the Board of Directors and Director of Engineering of the Nooter Corporation. He is active on various ASME Codes and Standards committees and the author of numerous books and publications related to pressure vessels.


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