A Naturalistic-Humanistic Approach
Band: 47, 543 Seiten, Kartoniert, Previously published in hardcover, Format (B × H): 155 mm x 235 mm, Gewicht: 855 g
Reihe: "International Library of Ethics, Law, and the New Medicine "
Verlag: Springer Netherlands
Maier / Shibles The Philosophy and Practice of Medicine and Bioethics
No specific or absolute recommendations are given regarding medical treatment, moral approaches, or legal advice. Given rather is discussion about each issue involved and the strongest arguments indicated. Each argument is subject to further critical analysis. This is the same position as with any philosophical, medical or scientific view.
The argument that decision-making in medicine is inadequate unless grounded on a philosophy of medicine is not meant to include all of philosophy and every philosopher. On the contrary, it includes only sound, practical and humanistic philosophy and philosophers who are creative and critical thinkers and who have concerned themselves with the topics relevant to medicine. These would be those philosophers who engage in practical philosophy, such as the pragmatists, humanists, naturalists, and ordinary-language philosophers.
A new definition of our own philosophy of life emerges and it is necessary to have one. Good lifestyle no longer means just abstaining from cigarettes, alcohol and getting exercise. It also means living a holistic life, which includes all of one's thinking, personality and actions.
This book also includes new ways of thinking. In this regard the "Metaphorical Method" is explained, used, and exemplified in depth, for example in the chapters on care, egoism and altruism, letting die, etc.
Weitere Infos & Material
Rationale of the bookAbout the Authors1. Metaphor in Medicine. The Metaphorical Method1.1 Introduction1.2 Types of metaphor1.2.1 Substitution1.2.2 Juxtaposition1.2.3 Analogy, Simile, or Comparison1.2.4 Symbolism1.2.5 Metonymy1.2.6 Synecdoche1.2.7 Synesthesia1.2.8 Reversal1.2.9 Personification1.2.10 Oxymora or combination of opposites1.2.11 Deviation1.2.12 Metaphor-to-myth fallacy1.3 Metaphorical methods should be considered for analysis of and writing research papers1.4. Clarification of medical language1.5 Case example: A healthcare worker (H) - patient (P) metaphoric: H/P modeling in medicine1.6 H/P models2. Definition2.1 Where does it come from that we think we need to define?2.2 Distinction between types of definition3. Decision Making: fallacies and other mistakes3.1 Conditions of decision-making3.2 Frequent causes of irrational medical thinking and decision-making3.3 Five levels of decision-making in medicine3.4 Fallacies in decision-making3.5 Mistakes3.5.1. What are mistakes?3.5.2. What are indications of errors?3.5.3. Indications that mistakes are often preventable ones3.5.4. What are the reasons for the mistakes?18.104.22.168 Questionable medical treatments22.214.171.124 Error is necessary126.96.36.199 Uncritical thinking (speaking)188.8.131.52 Medical knowledge is lacking184.108.40.206. System as a cause of error220.127.116.11 Some mistakes are not mistakes18.104.22.168 Guidelines are not followed22.214.171.124 Self-caused mistakes126.96.36.199. Patient errors188.8.131.52 Lack of sufficient attention184.108.40.206 Misdiagnosis220.127.116.11 Overwork18.104.22.168 Limitations of knowledge in medicine22.214.171.124 Unfair medical threats of malpractice suits threaten physicians126.96.36.199 Unfair blame188.8.131.52 Protocols of good management are violated184.108.40.206 Unfairness of the law220.127.116.11 Negative emotions3.5.5 Case example: Misleading diagnosis3.5.6 Personal experiences: mistakes4. Analysis of Causation in Medicine4.1 Decision-making and cause4.2 Synonyms of cause4.3 Antonyms for cause4.4 Metaphorical models for cause4.5 Substitutions for cause4.6 Temporal factors in causality4.7 Types of causality4.8. Summary5. Ethics and Non-Ethics5.1 Introduction5.2 A naturalistic theory of ethics5.3 What is ethics in actual usage?5.4 Ethics and morals: an unethical society5.5 Value contradictions5.6 Examples of contradictions5.7 On being non-ethical and anti-inquiry5.8 Brief conclusion5.9 An Ethics Text for British Medical Schools5.10 Case example: medicine and dysfunctional culture5.11 Case example: military medical service as contradictory to medical practice5.12. Insensitivity to killing: the failure to be embarrassed.5.13 Case example: on sensitivity5.14 Case example: Tsunami disaster and cultural irresponsibility5.15 Case example: culture and family as anti-medicine: female circumcision6. Medicotheology and Biotheology6.1 Introduction. How many people have religious beliefs?6.2 The influence of religion on bioethics and medicine6.3 Church opposition to medicine6.4 Should medicine be based on supernaturalism?6.5 Science and metaphysical causes?6.6 Case example: religion and autonomy6.7 Religion versus medicine: a common ground?6.8 Religion as ethics6.9 Ethics Committees6.10 Humanism versus religion6.11 Absolute religious ethics versus consequentialism6.12 Case example: deprogramming religion in medicine6.13 Case example: a real woman6.14 The person as a soul6.15 Sanctity-of-life (human)6.16 General observations regarding the Value of human life6.17 Contradictions regarding the Sanctity-of-Life doctrine6.18 Selected arguments from the philosophy of religion6.19 Prayer as medical treatment7. Emotion in Medicine7.1 Introduction7.2 Case example: non-mental associations provide complexity to cognitions7.3 Emotion is not an internal state7.4 Emotions can be changed7.5 The happy Stoics: passionate rational emotion7.6 Virtually all judgments involve emotion7.7 Emotion can change with bodily feeling7.8 Emotion is not passive7.9 Emotions are unique7.10 Rejection of the Release Theory of Emotions7.11 Case example: emotion requires assessment7.12 Negative emotions are philosophical language fallacies7.13 Some traditional examples of philosophy of language fallacies7.14 Pity7.15 Hope and humor7.16 Case example: patients' negative emotions7.17 Can emotions be reduced to physiology?7.18 How are diseases and emotions classified?7.19 Case example: legal recognition of emotional harm7.20 Brief summary of the Cognitive Theory of Emotion8. Enlightened Versus Normative Management. Ethics Versus Morals.8.1 Introduction8.2 Requirements for good management8.3 Special section on overwork: a failed metaphor of the medical system8.3.1 Introduction8.3.2 How many hours do physicians, nurses and healthcare workers work?8.3.3 Attempts to limit the number of work hours8.3.4 Do physicians and nurses also cause the problems of overwork?8.3.5 What is the effect of overwork?8.3.6 Overwork harms health of staff8.3.7 Overwork increases sick leave8.3.8 Overwork causes stress and burnout8.3.9 Overwork and suicide8.3.10 Overwork causes loss of quality of life8.3.11 Overwork is a cause of negative emotions8.3.12 Overwork causes loss of interest in medical practice8.3.13 What is the legal result of overwork?8.3.14 Denial that healthcare workers overwork and/or that it is harmful8.3.15 Is there evidence for the harm of overwork?9. Care: A Critique of the Ethics and Emotion of Care9.1 Introduction9.2 Care theories9.3 The word-field meanings of caring9.3.1 Introduction9.3.2 The synonyms and word-field of the term "caring"9.4 Irrational forms of Caring9.5 The Cognitive-Emotive Theory of Caring9.5.1 Feeling9.5.2 Caring is a value cognition causing feeling9.5.3 Caring is based on positive cognitions9.5.4 Emotions can be changed9.5.5 We cause our own emotions. Caring is caused by ourselves.9.5.6 The passionate stoics: rational emotion, rational caring9.5.7 Negative emotion changes with feeling9.5.8 Negative emotion is not passive9.5.9 Each emotion of caring is unique9.5.10 Rejection of the release theory of caring9.5.11 Judgments generally involve emotion9.5.12 Metaemotion9.6 Caring and negative emotions9.7 Mutuality of Caring9.8 The patient's Hippocratic Oath9.10 Empathy and caring9.11 Summary10. Egoism and Altruism in Medicine10.1 Introduction10.2 Common definition of altruism and egoism10.3 Definitions of altruism10.4 Definitions of egoism10.5 An analysis of the word-fields of altruism and egoism10.5.1 The word-field of altruism10.5.2 The word-field of egoism10.6 Altruism versus egoism10.7 The problem of the Self10.8 The ethical basis of altruism and egoism10.8.1 General remarks10.8.2 Utilitarian altruism10.8.3 Ayn Rand's Objectivist Egoism10.8.4 The Ordinary Language basis of altruism and egoism10.9 Altruism and egoism as emotions10.9.1 Altruistic and egoistic emotion are not mere bodily feelings10.9.2 Altruism and egoism are cognitions causing bodily feelings10.9.3 The emotions of altruism and egoism can be changed10.9.4 Altruism and egoism are based on value cognitions10.10 Sympathy10.11 Selfishness10.12 Rational altruism and egoism10.13 Summary11. Letting Die11.1 Introduction11.2 Misuse of ethical terms11.3 Criteria for preferential treatment: non-contradiction11.4 Case example: Oregon Healthcare prioritizing11.5 What about self-caused illness and how to determine?11.6 The Hippocratic Oath: pacifism in medicine?11.7. Should we kill X to save Y? The numbers game11.8 Allowing death = killing = murder11.9 Letting-die and the Samaritan11.10 Albert Schweitzer on Reverence for Life11.11 Negative emotions kill and let die11.12 Lack of organs as a form of letting die11.13 Suicide and euthanasia11.14 Conclusion12. A Critique of Autonomy and Patient Responsibility12.1 Introduction12.2 Criticisms of the principle of autonomy12.3 Patient responsibility and a patient code of ethics12.4 Patients duties and patient code of ethics12.5 Case report: patient and legal irresponsibility13. Philosophy and Ethics of the Body13.1 Introduction13.2 Definition of philosophy and body13.3 The scientific method: medicine as a science13.4 A Naturalistic Ethics of the body13.5 The value of life in terms of the body13.6 The mind13.7 The Self as a language construct13.8 The un-philosophical body13.9 Outward physical appearances: beauty13.10 The face13.11 The body as a whole and body parts: organs and Transplantation Medicine13.12 Reproduction of bodies?13.13 Leib: living to the full.13.14 The philosophical body: the body as an aesthetic whole13.15 Summary of the ethics of the body14. Organ Donation: Mandatory Organ Donation Declaration14.1 How many people need organs?14.2 Death requirement14.3 Opposition to organ donation14.4 Support of organ donation14.5 Presumed organ donation14.6 Family approval as an adverse policy14.7 Recommendations for obtaining organs for transplantation14.7.1 Lottery14.7.2 The economic incentive approach14.7.3 Irresponsible lifestyles and organ preference14.7.4 Mandatory Organ Donation Declaration15. Stem Cell Research: A Question of Beliefs?15.1 Introduction15.2 Definitions and clarifications of morals and ethics15.3 Facts and beliefs about stem cells15.3.1 What we already know about stem cells15.3.2 The promise of stem cell research in general15.4 The controversy about what an embryo is15.4.1 Definitions15.4.2 Embryonic development in its context15.4.3 The moral status ascribed to an embryo15.4.4. Life is not just life: when is a human a human?15.5 Ethical issues in stem cell research15.5.1 How to perform an ethical examination?15.5.2 Inquiry into language15.5.3 The abortion argument all over again?15.5.4 Adult stem cell research, an alternative to embryonic stem cell research? Other alternatives?15.5.5 IVF "left over" embryos versus "created for research" embryos15.5.6 Public funding?15.5.7 The ethical challenge of research15.6 Conclusions: humaine medicine - medicine for suffering people16. Philosophy of Prevention16.1 Introduction16.2 An analysis of prevention16.3 Unethical behavior and irresponsible lifestyles16.4 Lifestyle as philosophical and critical thinking16.5 Areas of prevention16.5.1 Education: the greatest preventative of disorder16.5.2 Cancer prevention16.5.3 AIDS16.5.4 Alzheimer`s disease (AD)16.5.5 Lack of exercise: the obvious escapes us16.5.6 Sexually transmitted disease (STD)16.5.7 Longevity16.5.8 Death and disease16.5.9 Hand-washing: the obvious escapes us again16.5.10 Drugs and toxins16.6 Hidden prevention possibilities16.7 Summary17. Ethics Counseling: Philosophy of Medicine Counseling Instead of Medical Ethics Counseling17.1 Introduction17.2 What is Ethics Counseling?17.2.1 Task Force on standards of Bioethics Consultation (USA)17.2.2 Basic ethical principles in European Bioethics and Biolaw18.104.22.168 Autonomy22.214.171.124 Dignity126.96.36.199 Integrity and narrative analysis188.8.131.52 Vulnerability184.108.40.206 Solidarity and social responsibility17.3 Criticism of Bioethical Principlism17.4 Case Method of Clinical Ethics17.5 Holistic philosophy of medicine17.6 Brief description of Dewey's Pragmatism and Naturalistic Ethics17.7 Humanism contains many of the elements of contemporary definitions of philosophical practice17.8 The present definitions and methods of Philosophical Counseling are too restrictive17.9 Philosophical Counseling or Philosophical Practice17.10 A proposal to change the title of Philosophical Practice to Philosophy Education17.11 The philosophy practitioner and emotion17.12 Summary18. Medical Language: The Ordinary Language Approach18.1 Introduction18.2 Formal logic as a pseudo-logical failure18.3 Formal logic is irrelevant to thought, reason and emotion18.4 Formal logic as irrelevant to ethics or bioethics18.5 Formal logic as formal fallacy18.6 Formal logic as a fallacy of abstractionism18.7 The arrogance of logicians18.8 Formal logic reduces language to mathematics18.9 Formal logic as a faulty view of meaning18.10 "Propositions": a pseudo-logical term18.11 Formal logic as dogmatism and misuse of symbols18.12 Formal logic misuses the term "truth"18.13 The useless syllogism18.14 Formal logic is not philosophy18.15 The primacy of ordinary language and Pragmatism18.16 Formal logic excludes metaphor and creative language19. A Critique of Evidence-Based Medicine. Evidence Based Medicine and Philosophy Based Medicine19.1 Does EBM really meet the challenge of modern medicine?19.2 What is the view of evidence in EBM -is it left undefined?19.3 EBM as statistics19.4 EBM often investigates the obvious and trivial19.5 EBM bears the risk of overgeneralization19.6 EBM is often unintelligibly complex19.7 EBM is often too abstractionistic19.8 EBM as appeal to authority fallacy19.9 EBM and the individual case and context19.10 Uncritical use of EBM and clinical experience19.11 EBM often excludes relevant causes and variables19.12 EBM has limited self-criticism19.13 EBM and psychiatry19.14 EBM and human emotions19.15 EBM and ethics19.16 EBM depersonalizes19.17 EBM text reviews19.17.1 Evidence-based spirituality19.17.2 EBM and practical medicine19.17.3 Evidence-based nursing19.17.4 EBM and logic19.17.5 EBM and Gender Medicine19.18 EBM and rational medicine19.19 EBM, psychosomatics and philosophy19.20 EBM and the problem of the placebo19.21 "Philosophy of Medicine"- based medicine instead of only "Evidence"- based medicine20. Lying in Medicine20.1. Introduction20.2 Definitions of lying20.3 A new theory of lying20.4 Self lie20.5 Consequences of lying20.6 Logic of flattery. Beneficial lying20.7 Hypocrisy21. Rhetoric of Death and Dying21.1 Definitions of death21.1.1 General definitions21.1.2 Medical-psychological definitions of death21.1.3 Death and abortion21.2 Death: the literature21.2.1 The poet's view21.2.2 Wittgenstein on death220.127.116.11 Death as a language-game18.104.22.168 The question: what is death?22.214.171.124 Death is not a thought or concept126.96.36.199 The epistemological primacy of language188.8.131.52 The death of mentalistic meaning184.108.40.206 There is no non-linguistic knowledge of death220.127.116.11 Language-games again and again18.104.22.168 What death is not22.214.171.124 Imagery and sensation126.96.36.199 Can we imagine death?188.8.131.52 Illustrations21.3 Dying21.3.1 The Cognitive-Emotive Theory21.3.2 The Cognitive-Emotive Theory of grief and bereavement21.4 Philosophy of religion21.4.1 Views in theology21.4.2 Old Testament21.4.3 New Testament21.5 Humanism21.6 The rhetoric of death using the Metaphorical Method21.6.1 Introduction to the metaphorical method21.6.2 Rhetorical techniques for the exploration of the concept184.108.40.206 Abstraction220.127.116.11 All-statements or none-statements18.104.22.168 Allegory22.214.171.124 Ambiguity126.96.36.199 Analogy and simile188.8.131.52 Behavioral metaphor184.108.40.206 Category-mistakes220.127.116.11 Grammatical term metaphors18.104.22.168 Circularity22.214.171.124 Connotation126.96.36.199 Context deviation188.8.131.52 Contradiction humor184.108.40.206 Defense mechanisms220.127.116.11 Deviation18.104.22.168 Euphemism22.214.171.124 Free association126.96.36.199 Hopelessness188.8.131.52 Irony184.108.40.206 Juxtaposition220.127.116.11 Metaphor and metaphorization18.104.22.168 Metonymy22.214.171.124 Personification126.96.36.199 Poetic metaphor188.8.131.52 Probability184.108.40.206 (Faulty) Questions and riddles220.127.116.11 Reduction to absurdity18.104.22.168 Rejuvenate metaphors22.214.171.124 Reversal humor126.96.36.199 Substitution188.8.131.52 Tension metaphors184.108.40.206 Uselessness220.127.116.11 Therapeutic metaphor21.7 Death and medical profession21.8 Final personal remarksIndex