Racial Health Disparities and Systemic Racism
1. Auflage 2022,
122 Seiten, Kartoniert, Paperback, Format (B × H): 155 mm x 235 mm, Gewicht: 219 g
Reihe: SpringerBriefs in Public Health
Verlag: Springer International Publishing
Misir COVID-19 and Health System Segregation in the USThis book highlights and suggests remedies for the racial and ethnic health disparities confronting people of color amid COVID-19 in the United States. Racial and ethnic health disparities stem from social conditions, not from racial features, that are deeply grounded in systemic racism, operating through the White racial frame. Race and ethnicity are significant factors in any review of health inequity and health inequality. Hence, any realistic end to racial health disparities lies beyond the scope of the health system and health care. The book explores structuration theory, which examines the duality between agency and structure as a possibly potent pathway toward dismantling systemic racism, the White racial frame, and racialized social systems.
In particular, the author examines COVID-19 with a focus on the segregated health system of the US. The US health system operates on the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’, whereby the dominant group has access to quality health care and people of color have access to a lesser quality or zero health care. ‘Separation’ implies and enforces inferiority in health care. Through the evidence presented, the author demonstrates that racial and ethnic health disparities are even worse than COVID-19. As in the past, this contagion, like other viruses, will dissipate at some point, but the disparities will persist if the US legislative and economic engines do nothing. The author also raises consciousness to demand a national commission of inquiry on the disproportionate devastation wreaked on people of color in the US amid COVID-19. COVID-19 may be the signature event and an opportunity to trigger action to end racial and ethnic health disparities.
Topics covered within the chapters include:
- Introduction: Segregation of Health Care
- Systemic Racism and the White Racial Frame
- Dismantling Systemic Racism and Structuration Theory
COVID-19 and Health System Segregation in the US is a timely resource that should engage the academic community, economic and legislative policy makers, health system leaders, clinicians, and public policy administrators in departments of health. It also is a text that can be utilized in graduate programs in Medical Education, Global Public Health, Public Policy, Epidemiology, Race and Ethnic Relations, and Social Work.
Weitere Infos & Material
Chapter 1: Introduction: Challenges Facing People of Color in the Healthcare SystemCOVID-19 continues to wreak havoc in the United States for many Americans, but especially bringing disproportionate untold damage to people of color. This situation is not surprising because the U.S. health system operates on the doctrine of 'separate but equal', whereby the dominant group has access to quality health care and the people of color have access to a lesser quality or zero health care. The health system is segregated, whereby there is, by law, the de jure health system for all, but it is the de facto health system in effect that creates a segregated health system, one for the dominant group and one for the people of color. And 'separation' implies and enforces inferiority in health care.
Chapter 2: Systemic Racism in Public Health in the United States -- A Systematic Review of the LiteratureThis Chapter carries the findings of the systematic review of the literature on systemic racism in public health in the United States. Systemic racism, conceptually, is White-generated discrimination and other forms of oppression against people of color, that generally spreads throughout the society. The racism is systemic, as it represents racist ideas and practices that become embedded in institutions and networks, and which shape race relations in a White-dominated racial hierarchy. Public health is one of many institutions that racism has subverted. And so, racism drives the social determinants of health (housing, education, employment, etc.), and becomes a barrier to health equity. For instance, profound racial bias in health care has also fast-tracked inequitable health outcomes for people of color; the Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) in 2002 in its study of over 100 clinical studies found that racial minorities are less probable than whites to obtain required services, including clinically essential procedures. Health disparities, discrimination, and residential segregation are by-products of racism, which are usually discussed without showing their links to racism. And so, subverting the impact of racism enables the inequities to persist. The disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on people of color is directly related to systemic racism.
Chapter 3: Epidemiology of COVID-19This chapter presents the findings of several systematic reviews and meta-analyses on COVID-19 from scholarly journals over the period December 2019 through TBD 2020.
- Origin and disease progression- Restrictive measures- Risk factors for infectious and severe outcomes- Therapeutics as interventions
Chapter 4: Disproportionate Burden on Cases, Hospitalizations, and Mortality Among People of ColorThis Chapter presents the data and information on the disproportionate devastation of COVID-19 on people of color in the United States. COVID-19 numbers for laboratory-confirmed cases, hospitalizations, and deaths are still growing, and so the data is still preliminary. For instance, for 131 mainly black counties in the United States, the infection rate is 137.5/100 000 and the death rate is 6.3/100 000. This contagion rate is more than 3-fold higher than that in primarily white counties. Moreover, this death rate for largely black counties is 6-fold higher than in principally white counties. People of color are contracting COVID-19 infection more regularly and dying disproportionately. CDC statistics on COVID-19 cases as of April 19, 2020, suggested that about 34% of African Americans were confirmed cases, equally distributed by about a third in each of these age groups: 18-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years; and almost a third were aged under 18 years. About 23% of Hispanics/Latinos were confirmed cases, where 40%