Granell Multilingual Information ManagementMultilingual information is in high demand in today's globalised economy. Industry and market globalisation, intensified collaboration between European countries, technological developments, the advent and consolidation of the Internet, the rise of electronic business, and the increased use of electronic documents are some of the factors that have fuelled this need. Multilingual Information Management draws on previous empirical research to explore how information and technologies are used within the community of translators as information facilitators among different languages and cultures, to help them become more productive and competitive in today's market. The book consists of three parts, including a literature review on information and technology needs among translators; a research framework to investigate the perceptions and use of information and technology within their working environment; and a strategic proposal for an Information Systems approach to multilingual information professionals and information literacy training.
- presents an interdisciplinary approach to multilingual information and technology management among information professionals
- analyses the community of practice of translators as multilingual information facilitators and ICT users
- contributes to further develop Information Literacy to a strategic level among information professionals
- provides a methodological contribution through an evidence-based approach to practice
- bridges the gap between the information-related disciplines of Information Science, Business Management, and Translation Studies
Weitere Infos & Material
Introduction: From using information and communication technology to making use of information and technology to communicate
Part One: Multilingual information and ICT needs
Part Two: Multilingual information and perspectives on ICT
Part Three: Multilingual information management: Matching needs & perspectives
3 Technology and translation
Information and Communication Technologies have evolved to provide a wide range of tools and resources, both of general purpose and of specialist purpose, that can help multilingual information professionals to improve their productivity and efficiency. This chapter presents a review of the computer-based tools available for professional translation settings and evidences of their use by the community of practice. Keywords
Information and Communication Technology ICT, CAT tools Computer-Assisted Translation Translation Memory terminology management system translation tools translator’s workstation As stated in the previous chapter, today’s multilingual and globalised society is in high demand for translation services that facilitate communication between different languages and cultures, and deliver documents and services meeting the quality standards of target markets (Taravella and Villeneuve, 2013). This increased need for multilingual communication has been exacerbated by a number of factors, including an emphasis on globalisation and international trade by the business community (Lange and Bennett, 2000, p. 203), the advent of the World Wide Web as an international marketing tool, the ever-growing amount of digital content such as web-based ones, or the rise of the software localisation industry (Sprung, 2000, p. ix). In multilingual regions like Europe, the forging of closer trading relationships between countries and the enlargement of their political bodies (i.e. the European Union) have highlighted an awareness of the need for multilingual communication, and again fuelled demand for translation services (Roxburgh, 2004). Along with the growth faced by the translation market (Sprung, 2000), more and more clients are requesting faster, better and cheaper translation services. Schäffner, (2000, p. 7) indicated that “translations need to be done ever more quickly, much more efficiently, and at a high quality.” Client demand has therefore meant that the language services sector, especially the translation sector, has had to develop innovative production processes and software tools to lower transaction costs, work faster and provide consistently high quality (Shadbolt, 2003). In addition, the increasing availability of personal computers and the prevalence of electronic tools over handicraft ones has also facilitated the development of information and communication technologies specifically designed for professional translators. The development of technologies such as computer-aided translation (CAT) tools,1 the main component of which is based on translation memory (TM) technology, has allegedly led to significant increases in the quantity (productivity) and quality (efficiency and effectiveness) of translators’ work (Heyn, 1998; Somers, 2003c), and these tools have been deemed to be one of the most useful facilities for translators (Hutchins, 2005a). Running in parallel with the increasing demand for translation services and the availability of specialised ICT for translators, various organisational developments have had, and are indeed continuing to have, a considerable impact on the translation services sector. For example, many in-house translation departments have closed as large commercial organisations have found it necessary to downsize and focus on core competencies in order to reduce costs (Fraser and Gold, 2000, p. 3; Locke, 2005, p. 19). As a result of this divestment, organisations now tend to outsource more translation assignments to freelance translators. Public sector organisations have adopted a similar approach and now tend to rely on the services of freelancers, in conjunction with a core body of in-house translators. As a result of these developments, a substantial proportion of translators, in the UK and elsewhere, now work on a freelance basis (Holland et al., 2004, p. 254; Locke, 2005, p. 19). Technological developments in the freelance translation sector have provoked much discussion among translators at professional conferences and seminars, as well as via online discussion groups, but the adoption of specialist tools, such as the above mentioned CAT tools, did not receive much attention from the academic community until the end of the 1990s and had not started to be thoroughly investigated until the first decade of the 21st century. Since the beginning of this century, it has been claimed that translation professionals have had to catch up with the increased demand for translation services and that, to do so, translation memory and terminology management solutions – the main features of CAT tools – should not only be used by large multilingual services suppliers, but also by small translation companies and freelance translators (see, for example, Joscelyne, 2003). Joscelyne’s statements were based on the findings of the surveys conducted by the Localization Industry Standards Association (LISA)2 (Lommel, 2002; 2004), which reported a growth in the use of translation memory technology and evidence of translation companies becoming more productive due to such use. Research has generally concentrated either on evaluations of CAT tools’ technical features (see, for example, Weßel, 1995; EAGLES, 1996; Whyman and Somers, 1999; Esselink, 2000; Austermühl, 2001; Zerfass, 2002; Bowker, 2002; Quah, 2006), or has tended to be focused on the working environments of in-house translators (King, 1998; Blatt, 1998; Chanod, 1998; Rinsche, 2000; Lange and Bennett, 2000). While some of the latter have been more comprehensive in their coverage of translators’ working practices and the technology used, their findings are inevitably now somewhat dated as the studies were undertaken prior to, or in the very early days of the widespread commercial availability of CAT tools. Such studies also include Smith and Tyldesley (1986), Fulford et al. (1990), Fulford, Höge and Ahmad (1990), and a European study, carried out as part of the LETRAC Project, undertaken by the end of the nineties, and reported in Reuther, (1999). In addition, discussions about CAT tools have, at times, been emotionally charged, primarily because of the threat to job security which some translators fear computer-assisted aids pose to the translation profession (see for example, Shields, 1999; Fenner, 2000). A number of concerns about the use of CAT tools such as low job satisfaction levels due to the use of CAT tools, the unsuitability of CAT tools for freelancers’ needs, the high cost of the tools, or conservative attitudes towards technological investments have been mentioned in existing literature (see for example, Fulford et al., 1990; Heyn, 1998; Hutchins, 1999; Esselink, 2003). Evidence regarding the uptake of CAT tools by freelance translators, the benefits of using these tools, and the problems associated with their use, has only started to be reported by research over the past ten years or so and is discussed in more detail in section 3.3 of this chapter. In the following sections, a review of the range of ICT available to translators is introduced by an overview of the development of translation tools, their evolution over time, the issues around the use of CAT tools by freelance translators, and a discussion of the “translator’s workstation” concept through the models of translation tools suggested by previous research. 3.1. Tools to support translators
Traditionally, a translator just used paper and ink to write, and paper dictionaries and libraries to do research. As technology evolved, the use of dictation machines and typewriters (mechanical and later electronic) assisted translators in their work. However, it was the proliferation of microcomputers – personal computers (PCs) – that formed a turning point in the way that translators work. The mere use of word processors greatly assisted translators in tasks such as revising and editing translations or adding format to documents. The development of computer-based reference works on electronic media, such as CD-ROM/DVD first, and then the advent of the Internet and electronic communications, multiplied the resources that translators could use in order to increase their productivity and quality of their work, and to improve the ways they communicate and transfer information. Many different terms are used when referring to computer-based tools and resources that support the translation process, for example, “translation software” (Hutchins, 2000a), “translation tools” (Esselink, 2000; Langewis, 2002), “language technologies” (Shadbolt, 2003), “electronic translation tools” (Austermühl, 2001), “machine-aided translation” (Quah, 2006), and “translation environment tools” (TEnTs) (Zetzsche, 2006). The term “computer-aided” or “computer-assisted translation” tools is also used to refer to the computer-based applications that support the translation process (Hutchins and Somers, 1992) and seems to be the one that is more familiar to scholars of the Translation Studies field,...