Schultz | The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law | Buch |

Schultz The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law

Treaty Basis and Scope of Application under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol

Erscheinungsjahr 2018, Band: 14, 432 Seiten, Gebunden, Format (B × H): 160 mm x 241 mm, Gewicht: 757 g Reihe: International Refugee Law
ISBN: 978-90-04-36195-9

Schultz The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law

Under what circumstances can a state refuse refugee status to a person whose risk of persecution exists in only part of her country of origin? This book is the first monograph to examine the treaty basis and criteria for the ‘internal protection alternative’ (IPA), an exception to refugee status increasingly invoked by state parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. Through a critical analysis of the relationship between refugee law and related fields, Schultz finds that the legal scope for IPA practice is narrower than is commonly claimed. Since persons subject to an IPA analysis have a well-founded fear of persecution within their countries of origin, any limit on their right to refugee status must involve a careful balancing of the impact of continued displacement against the state's interest in preserving its restricted protection resources. She argues that the doctrine of implied limits in human rights law can provide analytic structure to the IPA concept and reduce the risk of overly broad application.


Weitere Infos & Material


List of Acronyms

List of Tables


1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Explanations for the Emergence of IPA Practice

1.3 The Evolution of IPA Practice

1.4 Terminology: Internal Protection/Flight/Relocation Alternative

1.5 Treatment of the Topic by Others

1.6 Subject Matter Limitations

1.7 Overview of the Book


2.1 Introduction: Parameters for Valid Argumentation

2.2 The Process of Treaty Interpretation: Applying the VCLT

2.3 Interpretation in Light of a Treaty’s Normative Context

2.4 The Relevance of State Practice

2.5 UNHCR Legal Guidance on IPA Application

2.6 Academic Commentary

2.7 Empirical Legal Methods

2.8 Conclusion

3The Treaty Basis and Criteria for IPA Application in Theory and Practice

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Treaty Basis for IPA Practice: Current Approaches

3.3 Models for Establishing the Substantive Criteria for IPA Practice

3.4 Conclusion

4The Treaty Basis for Application of the IPATest

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Surrogate Role of Refugee Law: ‘thick’ vs. ‘thin’ Perspectives

4.3 The IPA and Regional Refugee Instruments

4.4 Conclusion

5The Baseline Requirements for IPA Application

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Non-refoulement protection under the Refugee Convention

5.3 Other Serious Harms: non-refoulement Guarantees in Human Rights Law

5.4 Other Requirements of ‘Effective Protection’

5.5 Actors of Protection

5.6 Conclusion

6Beyond Non-refoulement: Other Factors Relevant to IPA Application

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Impact of Displacement

6.3 Special Needs and Other Personal Factors

6.4 Factors Related to the Impact of IPA Practice on Countries of Origin

6.5 Are there any Easy Cases?

6.6 The IPA in EU Law: Compatible with the Refugee Convention?

6.7 Conclusion: The Substantive Criteria for IPA Practice

7Procedural and Evidentiary issues in the IPA Analysis

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Burden of proof in the IPA Context

7.3 Notice and the Right to be Heard

7.4 Country of Origin Information (COI)

7.5 The IPA as a Procedural Shortcut for Dismissing Refugee Claims

7.6 Conclusion

8TheIPA in Complementary Protection Regimes

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The IPA and Article 3 ECHR: Essentially a Question of Risk

8.3 Principles Versus Practice in ECtHR Jurisprudence

8.4 ECtHR Jurisprudence Versus IPA Requirements in Refugee Law

8.5 Is there a Normative Basis for Harmonizing IPA Practice in all Protection Claims?

8.6 Conclusion

9IPA Application: Insights from Norway

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Development of Refugee Law in Norway

9.3 The Asylum Infrastructure in Norway

9.4 Sources of Interpretation

9.5 Implementation of the IPA Concept: Points of Departure

9.6 The Requirement of ‘Effective Protection’ in Norwegian IPA Practice

9.7 Other Human Rights and Humanitarian Factors

9.8 Procedural Issues in Norwegian IPA Practice

9.9 Conclusion


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Point of Departure: The Surrogate Role of Refugee Law

10.3 An Implied Limit on the Substance or Application of Article 1A(2)?

10.4 Substantive and Procedural Requirements for IPA Application

10.5 Concluding Remarks


Case register

Schultz, Jessica
Jessica Schultz, Ph.D. (1973), is a researcher at the Chr. Michelsen Institute in Bergen, Norway. She has published and taught on a range of topics related to human rights and refugee law.

Ihre Fragen, Wünsche oder Anmerkungen

Ihre Nachricht*
Wie möchten Sie kontaktiert werden?
Ihre E-Mail-Adresse*
Lediglich mit * gekennzeichnete Felder sind Pflichtfelder.
Wenn Sie die im Kontaktformular eingegebenen Daten durch Klick auf den nachfolgenden Button übersenden, erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden, dass wir Ihr Angaben für die Beantwortung Ihrer Anfrage verwenden. Selbstverständlich werden Ihre Daten vertraulich behandelt und nicht an Dritte weitergegeben. Sie können der Verwendung Ihrer Daten jederzeit widersprechen. Das Datenhandling bei Sack Fachmedien erklären wir Ihnen in unserer Datenschutzerklärung.